Welcome to What to Believe in Uncertain Times?, the latest installment of Big Questions, presented by the Notre Dame Alumni Association. Explore Part 4 of the course below.

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Early in the course, we considered thinkers like Socrates and Descartes, who suggested that reasonable people need to examine each of their beliefs carefully and on their own. But in our modern, fast-paced, interconnected world, this is not often how we go about acquiring information. In Part 4, we will broaden our perspectives and ask when we should rely on other people in figuring out what we should believe. Join us for the micro-course.

Forming Beliefs In a Social World

Paul discusses how we should think about the fact that many more people disagree with us than we could ever engage in argument. Should such diversity of opinion make us less certain of our views? Or, can we reasonably ignore some of these disagreements without becoming closed-minded or arrogant?
Lecture 4: Forming Beliefs In a Social World
Watch time: 6 minutes

How to Avoid an Echo Chamber

In this video, Paul draws on recent work by philosopher Thi Nguyen to explain how seeking out views from those we disagree with can help ensure that we do not get stuck in a polarizing "bubble" or "echo chamber."
Applying the Concepts: How to Avoid an Echo Chamber
Watch time: 4 minutes

The Disagreement Test

When we find out that our beliefs are subject to strong disagreement, our initial reaction might be to either lose confidence in those beliefs or to dig in and defend them. In this activity, Paul talks about how you can use three simple tests to determine whether you ought to become more or less skeptical in response to a particular disagreement.
Activity: The Disagreement Test
Watch time: 2 minutes
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